英語語法總結:虛擬語氣

1. 與現在事實相反的虛擬:
If + did / were + ..., ... would/ should/ could/ might + do (動詞原形)
If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.)
If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.)

2. 與過去事實相反的虛擬:
If + had done + ..., ... would (might) have done ...
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you. (I didn't know your telephone number.)
If you had come here a little earlier just now, you might have met her. (You didn't come here earlier.)

3. 與將來事實相反的虛擬:
(1) If + should + v., ... would + v. (可能性很小)(譯作「萬一」)
If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home.
If I should fail, what should Ido?

(2) If + did / were to + v ..., would + v. (完全不可能)
If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money.
If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car.

4. 特殊重點

[簡單聯想記憶]:

● 下列動詞后的「賓語從句」中需要用虛擬形式,即should + 動詞原形,shoud在美國英語中要省略(TOEFL語法考點)。此類常見的動詞有:order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建議), insist(堅決要求), advise, etc.
He suggested that we (should) help them with English.
The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour.

● 下列名詞后的同位語從句中要用「should + 動詞原形」(should可省去)的虛擬。此類常見的名詞有:suggestion, order, request, demand, importance, proposal.
He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party.
I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon.

● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. + that +主語+ should + v.
It is strange that you should say such a thing.
It was important that you should tell me all the information.

● wish后的賓語從句中,as if 后的狀語從句中,須用下列的虛擬形式:
主 + wish+ (that) + 主 + did / were(指現在)
had done(指過去)
would+ v.(指將來)
I wish that I met my uncle now.
I wish I had met my uncle yesterday.
I wish I could meet my uncle tomorrow.

● It is (high) time that ... + did / were ...
It is time that you went to bed.

● would rather that ... + did / were ...
I would rather that you were not here now.

● would sooner that ... + did / were ...
I would sooner that you got up earlier.
I would sooner that you were not my brother.

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